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LiDAR-Based Map Relative Localization Performance Analysis for Landing on Europa

Show simple item record Hewitt, Robert A Setterfield, Timothy Trawny, Nikolas 2022-03-01T00:44:29Z 2022-03-01T00:44:29Z 2021-03-06
dc.identifier.citation 2021 IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, Montana, March 6-13, 2021
dc.identifier.clearanceno CL#21-0247
dc.description.abstract This paper presents preliminary simulations andanalyses done to assess the feasibility of performing Map RelativeLocalization (MRL) with the Europa Lander LiDAR beingdeveloped for the Europa Lander Pre-Phase A concept. MapRelative Localization is the process of determining the horizontalposition of a lander with respect to an onboard, a-priori map,by comparing the map to sensor observations of the terrain duringdeorbit, descent, and landing (DDL). Although kilometerscaleposition knowledge is commonly available during DDL,landing in hazard-rich environments requires position errors of100 m or less. Prior knowledge in the case of Europa Landerwill be visual and topographic maps collected by the upcomingEuropa Clipper mission. The Mars 2020 Lander Vision System(LVS) uses images from a camera to localize with respect tovisual maps. This technology, as well as a 3D imaging LiDAR indevelopment for hazard detection, is currently baselined for theEuropa Lander Pre-Phase A concept. This paper investigatesthe potential use of the hazard detection LiDAR to performMRL with respect to a 3D digital elevation model (DEM)provided by the Europa Clipper mission, as an alternative orbackup solution to passive optical MRL. Compared to passiveoptical MRL, one advantage of LiDAR-based localization isthat it is insensitive to lighting conditions, potentially relaxingrequirements on synchronizing map acquisition and landingtime of day. To analyze LiDAR based MRL performance,six representative terrains are synthetically up-sampled fromGalileo-derived maps of Europa to a resolution of 0.5 m/pxand covering an area of 4 km by 4 km. These maps are usedas ground-truth to generate simulated noisy a-priori onboardtopographic maps expected from Europa Clipper as well assimulated LiDAR DEMs generated at an altitude of 5 km duringEuropa Lander DDL. The simulated LiDAR DEM is matchedagainst the simulated map via 2D normalized cross-correlation,exploiting the accurately known spacecraft attitude to avoidthe need for more computationally intensive algorithms such asIterative Closest Point (ICP). Two sources of measurement errorare identified for analysis: 1) additive Gaussian noise in therange measurements from the Europa Lander LiDAR and theEuropa Clipper derived maps and 2) errors in the LiDAR DEMinduced by errors in the Europa Lander state estimate which isused to de-warp the LiDAR scan data into a DEM format. Weassess the effect of each of these types of errors independently onmatching performance as well as the overall performance whenall types of error are introduced. Additionally, we present theresult of a sensitivity study to terrain frequency content.
dc.description.sponsorship NASA/JPL en_US
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher Pasadena, CA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2021
dc.title LiDAR-Based Map Relative Localization Performance Analysis for Landing on Europa
dc.type Preprint

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